conspiracy over against syrian.

conspiracy over against syrian. while the multi country leaders are speaking a bout crisis in the syria and they want debacle it’s government but there are multi country that in those there are not freedom and human right and any election people. in soudi arabia the feminine shouldn’t driving and there aren’t any free organ but the western country leaders are silent about it. in qutar the peopls have not the election right evryone that sit on the power isn’t accepted by the people. but on their view this is not important because these countries are allied with them in their crimes. the pelestinain are under israelian injuistce but they mum against these crimes. on your view!! whether is this justice?

persian gulf

Persian Gulf 

The Persian Gulf is an extension of the Arabian Sea, positioned in the heart of the Middle East. 

It connects with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea through the Strait of Hormuz, and it’s approximately 615 mi (990 km) long. 

The Persian Gulf is certainly one of the most vital bodies of water on the planet, as gas and oil from Middle Eastern countries flow through it, supplying much of the world’s energy needs. 

Over many centuries the Persian Gulf has been a flash point for controversy. In 1990, after Iraq invaded Kuwait, an international coalition led by the United States drove Iraq out, but as they left Iraq’s military set fire to hundreds of Kuwati oil fields, causing a major environmental disaster in the area. In 2003, tension in the gulf increased again as U.S. and British forces invaded Iraq, and powerful naval forces from both countries remain in its waters, mostly to protect the flow of oil. 

map of the persian gulf

Taq-e Bostan or Taq-i-Bustan (Persian: طاق بستان‎)

Taqwasân or Taq-e Bostan or Taq-i-Bustan (Persian: طاق بستان‎) is a series of large rock relief from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. This example of Sassanid art is located 5 km from the city center of Kermanshah in western Iran. It is located in the heart of the Zagros mountains, where it has endured almost 1,700 years of wind and rain.
The carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian sculpture under the Sassanids, include representations of the investitures of Ardashir II (379–383) and Shapur III (383–388). Like other Sassanid symbols, Taq-e Bostan and its relief patterns accentuate power, religious tendencies, glory, honor, the vastness of the court, game and fighting spirit, festivity, joy, and rejoicing.
Sassanid kings chose a beautiful setting for their rock reliefs along an historic Silk Road caravan route waypoint and campground. The reliefs are adjacent a sacred spring that empties into a large reflecting pool at the base of a mountain cliff.


Taq-e Bostan and its rock relief are one of the 30 surviving Sassanid relics of the Zagros mountains. According to Arthur Pope, the founder of Iranian art and archeology Institute in the USA, “art was characteristic of the Iranian people and the gift which they endowed the world with.”
Carvings description

Taq-e Bostan and its rock reliefs comprise two big and small arches. They illustrate the crowning ceremonies of Ardashir I and his son, Shapur I, Shapur II and Khosrau II. They also depict the hunting scenes of Khosrau II.
The coronation ceremony of Ardashir I

The first scene outside the arch, crowning ceremony of Ardashir I
The first Taq-e Bostan relief, and apparently the oldest, is a rock relief of the crowning ceremony of Ardashir I and his son Shapur I. It includes the figures of four people with swords, helmets, and lotus, the latter being the flower cultivated extensively by Iranians.
Researchers have long debated the identities of the figures in this relief, although most are agreed on the identity of the fallen figure. He is Artabanus IV, the last Parthian king whose rule terminated in 226 AD. This rock relief does not depict a scene of the coronation ceremony of two Sassanid kings. Rather, it depicts the demise of the Parthian dynasty, where Artabanus’s figure has fallen under the feet of new rulers. Another view maintains that the fallen figure is Haftanbokht mentioned in Karnamak-i Ardashir, and the right figure is Kayus of Kermanshah who was reinstated as a local governor by Ardashir (the figure in the middle).
It is now believed that the figures represent Ardashir I and his son Shapur I, stomping over the dead body of Artabanus IV, delighted and intoxicated with victory over their enemy. Izad, the Zoroastrian name for God, stands behind Ardeshir as a symbol of protection.


A closer look at the rock relief shows how meticulously Sassanid artists created this scene. The figure standing to the right wears a jagged crown. He has turned to the middle figure and holds out a ribbon-decked royal ring. The middle figure wears a helmet. Both figures have robes that cover their bodies to the knees, though the robes differ in detail with the middle figure’s robe showing a rounded hem. The middle figure’s helmet is also round and allows his curly hair to fall from beneath. This differs again from the crown worn by the figure on the right. Behind the middle figure, another figure stands in a halo of light around his head. This figure represents Izad Bahram, who, in all the extraordinary adventures of Ardashir, performs the role of guardian and guiding angel. Previously, Izad Mithra (Mehr) had been the guardian god of the Parthian military. The feet of the Izad are noticeably smaller than the other figures. He wears delicate and elegant shoes. His small heels rest on a lotus, indicating the artists intention to create soft and tender platform for his delicate shoes.
Relief panel measured on 15.08.07 is approx. 4.07m wide and 3.9m high.
[edit]Crowning ceremony of Shapur III
The smaller arch bears two Pahlavi scriptures and carvings of Shapur II, or Shapur the Great, and his son Shapur II facing each other. The smaller cave within the arch’s vestibule measures 6 x 5 x 3.6 meters. It was believed built during the reign of Shapur III. Some put the date of its completion at 385 AD. The Pahlavi inscriptions clearly introduces the two figures. The translation of their text follows:
Shapur II inscriptions :
This is the figure of the good worshiper of Izad (God), Shapur, the king of Iran and Aniran (non-Iran), divine race from God. Son of the good worshipper of God, Hormizd, the king of Iran and Aniran, divine race, grandson of Nersi, the Shahanshah (king of kings).
Shapur III scripture:
This is the figure of the good worshiper of Izad (God), Shapur, the king of Iran and Aniran, divine race from God. Son of the good worshiper of God, Shapur, the king of Iran and Aniran, from divine race.
The figures of the two kings have been carved in silhouette, looking at each other. The each figure stands 2.97 meters. Shapur II is on the right and Shapur III is on the left. Each figure’s hands are placed on a long straight sword which point downwards. The right hand is holding the grip and the left rests on the sheath. Both figures wear loose trousers, necklaces, curled hair, and a pointed beard ending in a ring.
[edit]Crowning ceremony of Khosrow Parviz

Khosrow Parviz is standing here. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below is, Khosrau dressed as a mounted Persian knight riding on his favourite horse, Shabdiz.
One of the most impressive reliefs inside the largest grotto or ivan is the gigantic equestrian figure of the Sassanid king Khosrau II (591-628 CE) mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor.

       

Ancient Sasanid Cataphract Uther Oxford 2003 06 2(1)
The arch rests on two columns that bear delicately carved patterns showing the tree of life or the sacred tree. Above the arch and located on two opposite sides are figures of two winged angles with diadems.
Around the outer layer of the arch, a conspicuous margin has been carved, jagged with flower patterns. These patterns are also found in the official costumes of Sassanid kings.
Equestrian relief panel measured on 16.08.07 approx. 7.45m across by 4.25 m high
[edit]Scene of boar and deer hunting
On the right wall of the arch, there is a picture of the king’s hunting measuring 3.8 X 5.7 meters. From the time of Cyrus the Great to the end of Sassanid period, hunting was one of the most favourite hobbies of Iranian kings. Therefore scenes of hunting are frequently found next to those of crownings.
There are two hunting scenes on each side of the ivan. One scene depicts the imperial boar hunt, and in a similar spirit, the other scene shows the king stalking deer. Five elephants flush out the fleeing boars from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand while being serenaded by female musicians. In the next scene, another boat carries female harpists and shows that the king has killed two large boars. The next boat shows the king standing with a semicircular halo around his head and a loose bow in his hand, meaning the hunt is over. Under this picture, elephants are retrieving the game with their trunks and putting them on their backs.
These royal hunting scenes are among the most vivid and highly narrative murals immortalized in stone.
Panel depicting boar hunt measured on 16.08.07 as approx. 6.0 m wide x 4.25 m high
Panel depicting deer hunt measured on 16.08.07 as approx. 5.9 m wide x 4.35 m high
[edit]Dowlatshah Relief
Jumping 1300 years in time the upper relief shows the 19th century Qajar Governor in Kermanshah city, Dowlatshah carving a relief in a big arch.
[edit]Taq-e Bostan Photos

Female musicians accompanying king during hunting

 

Capital of a Sasanian column in Taq-e Bostan complex with geometrical design

 

Head part of a column with figural decoration of a Sasanian king

 

Detail from a Sassanian relief on the incoronation of Ardashir showing a defeated Julian.

 

relief of Fath Ali Shah , the Qajar king, added to the ancient complex in 19th century.

[edit]See also

Kermanshah
Sassanid architecture
Naqsh-e Rustam
Bishapur
[edit]References

Dr. Ali Akbar Sarfaraz, Dr. Bahman Firuzmandi “Mad, Hakhamanishi, Ashkani, Sasani” Marlik, 1996. ISBN 964-90495-1-7
Gardeshgary magazine Vol. 13, September 2002
Iranian Cultural News Agency (CHN)
[edit]External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Taq-e Bostan
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 5: Drawings and Maps, Records of Taq-e Bostan Site Collections Search Center, S.I.R.I.S., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Photos of Taq-e Bostan
Kermanshah and Taq-e Bostan
Photosynth of Taq-e Bostan
Coordinates: 34°23′15″N 47°07′56″E
[hide] v t e
Kermanshah Province
Capital
Kermanshah

Counties and Cities
Dalahu County
Kerend-e Gharb Gahvareh
Eslamabad-e Gharb County
Eslamabad-e Gharb Homeyl
Gilan-e Gharb County
Gilan-e Gharb Sarmast
Harsin County
Harsin Bisotun
Javanrud County
Javanrud
Kangavar County
Kangavar
Kermanshah County
Kermanshah Halashi Kuzaran Robat
Paveh County
Paveh Bayangan Nowdeshah Nowsud
Qasr-e Shirin County
Qasr-e Shirin Sumar
Ravansar County
Ravansar
Sahneh County
Sahneh Mian Rahan
Salas-e Babajani County
Tazehabad Ozgoleh
Sarpol-e Zahab County
Sarpol-e Zahab
Sonqor County
Sonqor Satar
Sights
Kohneh Bridge Behistun Inscription Taq-e Bostan Temple of Anahita Dinavar Ganj Dareh Essaqwand Rock Tombs Sorkh Deh chamber tomb Malek Tomb Hulwan Median dakhmeh(Darbad,Sahneh) Parav cave Do-Ashkaft Cave Tekyeh-e Moavenalmolk Dokan Davood Inscription,Sar Pol-e-Zahab Tagh e gara,Patagh pass Sarab Niloufar Ghoori Ghale Cave Khaja Barookh’s House Chiyajani Tappe Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex Emad al doleh Mosque Tekyeh-e Beglarbagi Hunters cave,Behistun_complex Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah Godin Tepe Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia Anobanini bas relief,Sarpol-e-Zahab

the life of imam hussein

Birth

On the third of Sha’ban in the year 4 A.H. the city ofMedina witnessed the birth of a boy in the house of Lady Fatimah (PBUH) and Imam Ali (PBUH); he was later nicknamed the “Master of Martyrs.” This newly born baby was the second son of a family whom the Prophet of Islam (PBUH&HP) saluted by the name of “Ahl al-Bayt” (people of the house of the Prophet). They were referred to as Ahl al-Bayt after Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) received the verse of Tat’hir (Purification) (The Holy Quran, 33:33). His mother was Lady Fatimah (PBUH), one of the greatest women in history, whose deep knowing, morality, purity, and other great characteristics are well known to all, a mother whose rank and status is described by the Holy Quran in a whole chapter.

 

His father, Imam Ali (PBUH), hugged his newborn second son in his arms. Imam Ali (PBUH) was the first person who became Muslim, most knowledgeable in religion, and most eloquent in the Arab language. As his exceptional record of self-sacrifice and courage in defending the religion of Allah (SWT) was passed down with the rise and expansion of Islam. He was the one whom Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) constantly announced as his successor by the command of Allah (SWT). 

 

Naming

On such an auspicious day, Imam Ali (PBUH) took his son to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP), as was the custom of respect, in order for a name to be chosen for his newborn son, just as he had done for his first son. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) named him ?Hussain? by the order of Allah (SWT). Hussain is the Arabic equivalent of Shubayr in Hebrew. Shubayr was the name of the second son of Haroun/Aaron, the successor of Musa/Moses (PBUH).

 

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) once informed Imam Ali (PBUH) about the similarity found between Muhammad and Musa, Ali and Haroun, Shubbar and Hassan, Shubayr and Hussain: “O Ali, your status with respect to mine is equivalent to the status of Haroun with respect to Musa, except there will be no prophet after me.”

 

The Prophet’s flower

Hussain (PBUH) spent his childhood with Lady Fatimah (PBUH), Imam Ali (PBUH), and especially with Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP). The love and affection Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) had towards Hussain (PBUH) was so unique that all the companions were aware of it, had frequently seen its manifestation, and had heard of it repeatedly. Moreover, historians have recorded incidents and narrations in this respect. In one account it has been said that the Prophet’s prostration took longer than usual in his prayer. People came to the Prophet and asked, “Were you receiving a revelation or order from Allah during prostration?” Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) replied, “No, my son Hussain had climbed onto my back; I waited until he wished to come down.” This is an example showing how the best creature of Allah (SWT) treated Hussain (PBUH) while he was in the best state of worship.  

 

The companions had seen Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) repeatedly put Hassan and Hussain (PBUT) on his shoulders and play with them. At other times he would kiss Hussain (PBUH) and say, “Hussain is from me, and I am from Hussain. May Allah love him who loves Hussain.” In other traditions the Prophet would say, “Hassan and Hussain (PBUT) are my two aromatic flowers from this world.”

 

Nonetheless, most people knew that the Prophet’s love for his two grandchildren, especially for Hussain (PBUH) was not a usual love of a grandfather for his grandchild. According to the Holy Quran, the Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) actions and words are apart from his desires: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow …” (The Holy Quran, 33:21) On the other hand, although Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) had other adopted daughters and a son, the specific affection and recommendations were only shown towards Hassan and Hussain (PBUT).

 

Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH&HP) recommendations and affections for Hussain (PBUH) were in fact portraying an important fact. He would repeatedly inform people that salvation and prosperity can only be found through the friendship and love of Imam Hussain (PBUH). Umar Ibn Khattab narrates from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP): “Hassan and Hussain are masters of the youth in heaven. Whosoever loves them has loved me, and whosoever has animosity with them, is my enemy.” In another account the Holy Prophet has also said, “You came to awareness by me; you found the right path and were guided by Ali; you were given blessings through Hassan; but your eternal salvation is with Hussain. Be aware that Hussain is a door from the doors of heaven. Whosoever has animosity towards him can never enter heaven.”

 

In the mirror of Allah’s book

Imam Hussain (PBUH) was still a child when several verses of the Holy Quran were revealed either about or referring to him. One of those verses is referred to as the verse of Mubahilah (3:61). On the day of Mubahilah when a spiritual contest between Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and the Christians of Najran was set up to invoke the curse of Allah (SWT) on the liars, Hussain (PBUH) and his family were the only ones accompanying the Prophet. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) had orders from Almighty Allah (SWT) through the verse of Mubahilah to take Hassan and Hussain (PBUT) as his children with him.

 

Hussain (PBUH) was one of the five people in regards to whom the verse of Tat’hir (Purification) was revealed. He, his father, brother, and mother were under the Prophet’s cloak when Allah (SWT) revealed to His Messenger: “Verily Allah desires to remove all kinds of uncleannessfrom only you, O Ahl al-Bayt (people of the house), and to definitely purify you.” (The Holy Quran, 33:33) This verse of the Holy Quran is clear proof of the infallibility of this family and their separation from all sins and mistakes.

 

In another verse, Allah (SWT) commands all Muslims to love those closely related to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP): “Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives?” (The Holy Quran, 42:32). When the companions asked Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) who these “near relatives” were, the Prophet (PBUH&HP) replied: “They are Ali, Fatimah and their two children.”

 

Years of youth

Unfortunately, the sweet years of Hussain’s childhood were soon over. He was about seven years old when the Prophet departed from this world, after having said his final words about his Ahl al-Bayt. Alas the Islamic world mourned.

 

The Prophet’s burial ceremony was not over yet, when the conspiracies were applied to rob the caliphate. People ignored all the numerous commandments and recommendations the Holy Prophet had made in regards to his successor. The great event of Ghadir had been veiled by negligence and disregard, and despite Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH&HP) frequent emphasis on Ali (PBUH) as his successor, his right for Islamic governorship was usurped. Even Fadak, a fertile land given by the Prophet to his daughter, was seized from the Prophet’s progeny by the government. The Prophet’s basil witnessed the harms and injuries caused upon his mother over the conflicts of allegiance, and as a result, lost his mother at the age of eight because of the crisis. The loss of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and Imam Hussain?s (PBUH) mother on the one hand, and the oppression upon Imam Hussain?s (PBUH) father on the other hand, in addition to the pressures he faced from the government, were bothering Hussain’s (PBUH) clean soul. This period coincided with the three caliphates’ era.

 

During this time Hussain (PBUH), as a Muslim and a follower, followed the path of Ali (PBUH) and was determined to defend truth with any opportunity he received, even though he was in his youth. He would warn people about the alterations made to Islam after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP). In the best of manners Hussain (PBUH), his father, and brother would express their objection to the alterations rulers of their time had made to the religion. In one of the cases for example, the third Caliph had exiled Abu Dhar, a close companion of the Prophet, for the ?wrongdoing? of expressing his complaints about the Caliph’s deviation from the path of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP). Although the Caliph had banned all from bidding farewell to Abu Dhar, Imam Ali, Hassan, and Hussain (PBUT) all went to bid their farewells to Abu Dhar to express their objection.Upon departing, Hussain (PBUH) turned to Abu Dhar and said,

 

“Dear Uncle, the Almighty Lord is powerful and able. He can change everything that has happened to you. These people seized your comfort, world, and life. Yet, you protected your religion from their deviations; truly you are not in need of this world and the people dependant upon this world. Their world has no value in your eyes, even though they are in great need of your way in life. Strengthen your heart and refrain from greediness and lowliness. Do not fear, and seek refuge in Allah, for perseverance is a sign of faithfulness and greatness.”

 

Hussain (PBUH) supporter of father

Hussain (PBUH) was about 32 when authority over Muslims was handed back to its rightful owner, as people paid their allegiance to Ali (PBUH). After some time, Imam Ali (PBUH) migrated to Kufah with his sons, and therein established the new capital of the Islamic government. During the span of his father’s rule, Hussain (PBUH) was a true supporter and close assistant to his Imam and father in all political and military stages. He showed his utmost respect to his father and remained obedient to his commands at all times.

 

Hussain (PBUH) was trained and raised by the greatest defender of Islam; he had learned courage and bravery from his father; and he was seriously involved in the three wars during his father’s Caliphate. In the battle of Jamal, Hussain (PBUH) was responsible for commanding the left side of the army of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH). He also achieved the first victory for the army of Ali (PBUH) in the battle of Siffin, where he and his companions freed the Furat (Euphrates) River.(2) Moreover, his role as a witness in the Hakamiyah arbitration between Muawiyah and his father, Imam Ali (PBUH), is clear proof of his active participation in the society. 

 

Hussain (PBUH) a follower of his brother

After the martyrdom of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH), Imam Hassan (PBUH), by the will of Allah (SWT) and the recommendations of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP), became the Imam and leader of the Muslims. He took responsibility in leading the Islamic societyand in preaching the religion of Allah (SWT).

 

As in the case of his father, Hussain (PBUH), like a true follower, continued to obey and respect his brother, while remaining firmly obedient in even the smallest matters. His manners and obedience towards his brother was so exemplary that historians have acknowledged and recorded many of the cases. In one example, they have recorded a narration from Imam Baqir (PBUH) as follows: “Due to the high respect that Imam Hussain (PBUH) held for his brother, he refrained from walking ahead of or talking before his brother, Imam Hassan (PBUH).

 

As mentioned, Hussain (PBUH) was always in a state of obedience and support to Imam Hassan?s (PBUH) actions in political and social matters, especially concerning peace treaty with Mu’awiyah. Despite the unfaithfulness of all Muslims towards Imam Hassan (PBUH), Hussain, the son of Ali (PBUT), a known character in the world of Islam, defended Imam Hassan’s (PBUH) decision on the peace treaty. Imam Hussain (PBUH) believed peace was the key factor in Islam’s maintenance.

 

After the peace treaty, Hussain (PBUH) and his brother moved from Kufah to Medina, their birth place and city, in which the Prophet’s shrine was built. InMedina, they continued to educate, enlighten, interpret, and explain the commandments of Allah (SWT) to the people. Not long after, however, Imam Hassan (PBUH) was poisoned and martyred by the order of Mu’awiyah. As Imam Hassan (PBUH) departed this world, the divine position of Imamate was once again passed to the most deserving. His brother Hussain (PBUH) became the next Imam in Islam.

darioush’s biography

Dariush’s crusades in the world of art and social activism have explored and echoed the intimate connection between what is and what should be for over four decades, as an artist as well as a humanitarian. But inarguably, Dariush’s greatest impact lies with the millions of ordinary individuals whose lives he has touched and transformed, many of whom have been inspired by him to try to make the world a better place.

Dariush was born in Teheran on February 4, 1951 and spent his early years in Karaj and Kurdistan. His talent was first recognized at an early age of nine, when he appeared on stage at his school. Hassan Khayatbashi introduced him to the public at the age of twenty through Iranian television. He immediately became popular with his legendary song “Do not tell me you love me”, and his contemporary and unique style opened a new era in the Iranian music.

From his humble beginnings, the admiration of his countrymen for his art with a purpose has empowered him to be the voice of his people. As a risk-taker and a public minded artist, His ability to straddle the world of art and social awareness has not been without consequences. Dariush’s determination to change the world for a better place and his unwillingness to compromise his deeply held beliefs resulted in his imprisonment and persecution before the revolution in Iran and has eternally fueled his passion to continue his journey to this day. Whether he sings poems of Shamloo, Rumi, Hafez and Naderpour, or lyrics of Janati attaie, Ghanbari, Sarfaraz, Negahban and Bayat, the themes that runs through all his endeavors are that of love, peace, freedom and justice. He has collaborated with such renowned artists as Ahmad Pejman, Mohammad Shams, Farid Zoland, Varoujan and many other innovative and avant guarde lyricists, musicians, and composers.

His body of work consists of over 200 songs in 26 albums. Dariush’s commitment to echoing the plight of his people and his country has resulted in the creation of a bewildering repertoire. Lauded by fans and critics as an iconic performer, Dariush has also been praised as a compassionate and committed activist due to his dynamic approach towards the ever growing social maladies afflicting his homeland. He travels extensively to pursue his humanitarian endeavors, which, among others, include calling for a more complementary coalition and a more comprehensive approach on the part of nonprofit organizations and their benevolent objectives all around the world. He has also dazzled audiences with great virtuosity with his vibrant performances. He has had sold out performances in concert halls around the world notably: Wembley (London), Carnegie Hall (New York,) Kennedy center (Washington DC,) Koncertoes (Stockholm), Greek theater (Los Angeles), Universal Amphitheater (Los Angeles), and Palais de Congres (Paris).

Dariush has earned the respect and love of his admirers not only because of his talent in the world of music as a performer, but also as a composer and actor. His performances in the Iranian Cinema, more specifically in two films: “Yaran” and “Faryad zir ab” have earned great reviews. Recently, his ambitious crusade for freedom and recovery, and his dedication to bringing awareness and support to the world of addiction have insured his place among the mere handful of humanitarian Iranian artists who have made an impact in the lives of people with compassion and passion. Through the establishment of the Iran Recovery Center, and Ayeneh Foundation, by creating such educational websites as Behboudi.com, the first Farsi website addressing substance abuse, Behboudichat.com, a chat room created for those who are seeking recovery and their family and loved ones to learn how to constructively complement their journey to recovery, Ayeneh.org, the first and only website raising awareness about all social maladies widespread among his countrymen, and his own Web log, dariusheghbali.com; through informative seminars, speeches and conferences worldwide, and as a member of Amnesty International, Dariush has raised his voice to make a difference. His weekly educational television programs have been a source of edification, awareness and prevention with regards to such crises as substance abuse, HIV and AIDS, human rights violations and the plight of children among others. His goal is to create a nurturing environment conducive to allowing people to develop healthy, drug free lives, encouraging them and their family and loved ones to acquire and seek the skills to achieve sobriety; to bring social awareness regarding human rights violations and the plight of his countrymen, and to create a bridge between those in need and those who can lend a helping hand. In a complementary gesture to his concerts and performances, he has been organizing free educational seminars worldwide as an ambassador of peace, love, recovery and unity. As such, his contributions have been recognized by the Self-Help and Recovery Exchange, which selected him to receive the Ron Simmons & Rev, Ronald L. Wright Award, for his outstanding contribution to support group participation by minority communities, as well as the Yaran Group in New York and the Iranian Student Group at UCLA for his humanitarian work worldwide.

Dariush and his music have swept the worldwide musical scene with an unforgettable and powerful mission. He has endeavored to create music of lasting worth and substance and through the years he has remained a true believer in the power of love and knowledge triumphing over tyranny and oppression. His inherent musicality and timbre, coupled with a passionate belief in the importance of civil liberties, and political and human rights have made him an international symbol of a free Iran. He has been a messenger of love and compassion to the refugees all around the world struggling to find a tiny nest away from suppression. As such, he has been embraced by the Arab world, with its rich musical culture, with great enthusiasm. In a recent international festival of music video and tele-media held in Bahrain, Dariush was recognized as the sole representative of contemporary Iranian music. He was awarded the highest peace trophy. In the closing ceremonies of the festival, Dariush sang of freedom, particularly in his homeland, Iran, and passionately expressed his firm commitment towards being the voice of awareness, bringing attention to the plight of his countrymen struggling for freedom.

Holding fast to his principles, Dariush’s fervor and unique taste in music, poetry and lyrics, and his impassioned ability to touch the souls of his countrymen have been the main source of his enduring style and presence. His visceral intensity and his fierce loyalty to the need of the society has undoubtedly proven to be inspiring to not only the younger generation but many generations past.

Dariush transcends the world of popular and traditional Iranian music that he has commanded for over four decades, and has awarded the most glorious spot in the heart and soul of his countrymen all over the world.

//

D ariush’s crusades in the world of art and social activism have explored and echoed the intimate connection between what is and what should be for over four decades, as an artist as well as a humanitarian. But inarguably, Dariush’s greatest impact lies with the millions of ordinary individuals whose lives he has touched and transformed, many of whom have been inspired by him to try to make the world a better place.

Dariush was born in Teheran on February 4, 1951 and spent his early years in Karaj and Kurdistan. His talent was first recognized at an early age of nine, when he appeared on stage at his school. Hassan Khayatbashi introduced him to the public at the age of twenty through Iranian television. He immediately became popular with his legendary song “Do not tell me you love me”, and his contemporary and unique style opened a new era in the Iranian music.

From his humble beginnings, the admiration of his countrymen for his art with a purpose has empowered him to be the voice of his people. As a risk-taker and a public minded artist, His ability to straddle the world of art and social awareness has not been without consequences. Dariush’s determination to change the world for a better place and his unwillingness to compromise his deeply held beliefs resulted in his imprisonment and persecution before the revolution in Iran and has eternally fueled his passion to continue his journey to this day. Whether he sings poems of Shamloo, Rumi, Hafez and Naderpour, or lyrics of Janati attaie, Ghanbari, Sarfaraz, Negahban and Bayat, the themes that runs through all his endeavors are that of love, peace, freedom and justice. He has collaborated with such renowned artists as Ahmad Pejman, Mohammad Shams, Farid Zoland, Varoujan and many other innovative and avant guarde lyricists, musicians, and composers.

His body of work consists of over 200 songs in 26 albums. Dariush’s commitment to echoing the plight of his people and his country has resulted in the creation of a bewildering repertoire. Lauded by fans and critics as an iconic performer, Dariush has also been praised as a compassionate and committed activist due to his dynamic approach towards the ever growing social maladies afflicting his homeland. He travels extensively to pursue his humanitarian endeavors, which, among others, include calling for a more complementary coalition and a more comprehensive approach on the part of nonprofit organizations and their benevolent objectives all around the world. He has also dazzled audiences with great virtuosity with his vibrant performances. He has had sold out performances in concert halls around the world notably: Wembley (London), Carnegie Hall (New York,) Kennedy center (Washington DC,) Koncertoes (Stockholm), Greek theater (Los Angeles), Universal Amphitheater (Los Angeles), and Palais de Congres (Paris).

Dariush has earned the respect and love of his admirers not only because of his talent in the world of music as a performer, but also as a composer and actor. His performances in the Iranian Cinema, more specifically in two films: “Yaran” and “Faryad zir ab” have earned great reviews. Recently, his ambitious crusade for freedom and recovery, and his dedication to bringing awareness and support to the world of addiction have insured his place among the mere handful of humanitarian Iranian artists who have made an impact in the lives of people with compassion and passion. Through the establishment of the Iran Recovery Center, and Ayeneh Foundation, by creating such educational websites as Behboudi.com, the first Farsi website addressing substance abuse, Behboudichat.com, a chat room created for those who are seeking recovery and their family and loved ones to learn how to constructively complement their journey to recovery, Ayeneh.org, the first and only website raising awareness about all social maladies widespread among his countrymen, and his own Web log, dariusheghbali.com; through informative seminars, speeches and conferences worldwide, and as a member of Amnesty International, Dariush has raised his voice to make a difference. His weekly educational television programs have been a source of edification, awareness and prevention with regards to such crises as substance abuse, HIV and AIDS, human rights violations and the plight of children among others. His goal is to create a nurturing environment conducive to allowing people to develop healthy, drug free lives, encouraging them and their family and loved ones to acquire and seek the skills to achieve sobriety; to bring social awareness regarding human rights violations and the plight of his countrymen, and to create a bridge between those in need and those who can lend a helping hand. In a complementary gesture to his concerts and performances, he has been organizing free educational seminars worldwide as an ambassador of peace, love, recovery and unity. As such, his contributions have been recognized by the Self-Help and Recovery Exchange, which selected him to receive the Ron Simmons & Rev, Ronald L. Wright Award, for his outstanding contribution to support group participation by minority communities, as well as the Yaran Group in New York and the Iranian Student Group at UCLA for his humanitarian work worldwide.

Dariush and his music have swept the worldwide musical scene with an unforgettable and powerful mission. He has endeavored to create music of lasting worth and substance and through the years he has remained a true believer in the power of love and knowledge triumphing over tyranny and oppression. His inherent musicality and timbre, coupled with a passionate belief in the importance of civil liberties, and political and human rights have made him an international symbol of a free Iran. He has been a messenger of love and compassion to the refugees all around the world struggling to find a tiny nest away from suppression. As such, he has been embraced by the Arab world, with its rich musical culture, with great enthusiasm. In a recent international festival of music video and tele-media held in Bahrain, Dariush was recognized as the sole representative of contemporary Iranian music. He was awarded the highest peace trophy. In the closing ceremonies of the festival, Dariush sang of freedom, particularly in his homeland, Iran, and passionately expressed his firm commitment towards being the voice of awareness, bringing attention to the plight of his countrymen struggling for freedom.

Holding fast to his principles, Dariush’s fervor and unique taste in music, poetry and lyrics, and his impassioned ability to touch the souls of his countrymen have been the main source of his enduring style and presence. His visceral intensity and his fierce loyalty to the need of the society has undoubtedly proven to be inspiring to not only the younger generation but many generations past.

Dariush transcends the world of popular and traditional Iranian music that he has commanded for over four decades, and has awarded the most glorious spot in the heart and soul of his countrymen all over the world.

who was imam hossein?

imam hossein was son of imam ali and emam ali was husband of the mohammad’s daughter. mohammad was Prophet of the islam. 50 years later of died mohammad yazid son of the Muawiya son of Abu Sfyan became king of the lands of the islam. Muawiya was enemy against Muhammad and Islam. yazid like the his father was Bloodthirsty and ruthless. he wouldlike that imam hossein accept himas the king of the islam and muslems. But Imam Hussain knew yazid can’t be Righteous and upright therefore imam hossein refused him as the leader of the islam. imam hossein knew would be killed but No surrender. he want to Medina and Mecca and yazid’s soldiors wouldlike kill him. imam hossein and his family and his Fellowships went to iraq beacuse Iraqi people wrote latters to him and Invitation him for come to iraq and Rescue them from Yazid’s oppression. imam hossein send his Cousin to Kufa To discover whether the Iraqi people want him or no. moslem went to kufa and iraqi people accepted him as the Representative of Imam Hussein in kufa. Yazid had heard the news about iraq sent on of the his commanders to iraq, he was Obaidullah son of the ziyad. he Once came to Kufa saw all of the people are Loving of the imam hossein therefore he treathed them to kill and Slavery. iraqi people Were afraid and left alone Imam Hussain’s representative and he was killed Whereas he was alone. When Imam Hussain heard the news abuot moslem Had reached to Karbala. at that time karbale was a disert. shemr and omer were tow of the yazid’s commander. they came to karbala and Imam Hussain did not can go to Kufa. Imam Hussain loved to be killed but Do not submit to oppression therefore he didin’t accept yazid , and shemr and omar boycotted the water on imam hossein in the The desert heat. hmam hossein had brought his wife and small children and imam hossein’s Fellowship were 72 but omar and shemr had 36000 soldiors. When was the night imam hossein turn off the burners and said to the his Fellowships We’ll be dead tomorrow Anyone who wants go but his fellowships didn’t go but they Knew would kill. The next day imam hossein with Little helpers standed ageinst 36000 soldiors. They were thirsty and tired. Imam Hussein had a son that he was 6 months and Brought him Yazid’s troops and said to them If do not uterine to us but This child is thirsty Just give water to the him. But they shoted a bullet to the throat, son of Imam Hussain and Imam Hussain said, god, you see that these people what did with me. and they killed imam hossein and his sons,his brothers ,his daughters,his fellowships and they were killed Whereas they were Thirsty. and in finish yazid’s soldiers cut them heads and did on the spear. imam hossein learned to us die is better than the live with Oppression.

past,now and future

i closed my eyes and look at on the past.

i see These: murder – Crime – pillage and plunde.

why murder crime pillage?

Aren’t we  all of one type?

Among all creatures only human kill its type,isn’t it?

first shahpoor

one of the iranian kings was called shahpoor and he  governed on iran at time of sasanian kingdom.

two of persian kings were called shahpoor,one of two kings was called first shahpoor and the other was called second shahpoor.

i want introduce first shahpoor in here.

he was son of ardeshir and he was second king of Sassanian kingdom.

during his kingdom occurred a hard war betwin persia and Roman Apratvry.

at that time persian king was first shahpoor and roman king was Valryanvs.in this war persian soldiers Defeated the roman kingdom and their king Was captured by the iranian.

shahpoor Ordered to drag bas relief  On a mountain in the local that called naghsh-rostam today.

naghsh-rostam ia near of pasargad (temp of cyrus).

you see in the below pic Shahpur’s victory against Valerian.

shahpoor is getting on the horse and  Valerian is kneeling in front of him.

پرونده:Bas relief nagsh-e-rostam al.jpg

Crimes of israeil

Multi-country leaders are Speaking of the Iranian threat to world But are silent in the face of Israeli crimes.

you see in the photo below Crimes of israeil.

With a sad heart is not joy in the world

There is a ruined village is Not prosperity.

takhte jamshid or perspolise

Persepolis *
Persepolis recreated.jpg
Country Iran
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Reference 114
Region ** Asia and Australasia
Inscription history
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)
Persepolis is located in Iran
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Location of Persepolis in Iran
Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

Persepolis (Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 PārsaTakht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BCE). Persepolis is situated70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid (Throne of Jamshid). The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BCE. To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa, which means “The City of Persians”. Persepolis is a transliteration of the Greek Πέρσης πόλις (Persēs polis: “Persian city”).

UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.[1]

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[edit]Construction

Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. André Godard, the French archaeologist who excavated Persepolis in the early 1930s, believed that it was Cyrus the Great (Kūrosh) who chose the site of Persepolis, but that it was Darius the Great (Daryush) who built the terrace and the great palaces.

Darius ordered the construction of the Apadana Palace and the Council Hall (the Tripylon or three-gated hall), the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, King Xerxes the Great (Khashayar). Further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the Achaemenid dynasty.[2]

[edit]Archaeological research

Plan of Persepolis

Odoric of Pordenone passed through Persepolis c.1320 on his way to China. In 1474, Giosafat Barbaro visited the ruins of Persepolis, which he incorrectly thought were of Jewish origin.[3] Antonio de Gouveia from Portugal wrote about cuneiforminscriptions following his visit in 1602. His first written report on Persia, the Jornada, was published in 1606.

Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, a variety of amateur digging occurred at the site, in some cases on a large scale.[4] The first scientific excavations at Persepolis were carried out by Ernst Herzfeld and Erich Schmidt representing the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. They conducted excavations for eight seasons beginning in 1930 and included other nearby sites.[5][6][7][8][9]

Herzfeld believed the reasons behind the construction of Persepolis were the need for a majestic atmosphere, a symbol for their empire, and to celebrate special events, especially the “Nowruz“. For historical reasons, Persepolis was built where the Achaemenid Dynasty was founded, although it was not the center of the empire at that time.

Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Architects resorted to stone only when the largest cedars of Lebanon orteak trees of India did not fulfil the required sizes. Column bases and capitals were made of stone, even on wooden shafts, but the existence of wooden capitals is probable.

The buildings at Persepolis include three general groupings: military quarters, the treasury, and the reception halls and occasional houses for the King. Noted structures include the Great Stairway, the Gate of Nations (Xerxes the Great), the Apadana Palace of Darius, the Hall of a Hundred Columns, the Tripylon Hall and Tachara Palace of Darius, the Hadish Palace of Xerxes, the palace of Artaxerxes III, the Imperial Treasury, the Royal Stables and the Chariot House.

[edit]Site

Persepolis (R)

A 19th century reconstruction of Persepolis, by Flandin and Coste.

Sonnenuntergang in Perspolis.jpg

Persepolis is near the small river Pulwar, which flows into the river Kur (Cyrus / Kuroush). The site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Kuh-e Rahmet (“the Mountain of Mercy”). The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground. From 5 to 13 meters on the west side a double stair, gently slopes to the top. To create the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, which were joined together with metal clips.

Around 518 BC, construction of a broad stairway was begun. The stairway was planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20 meters above the ground. The dual stairway, known as the Persepolitan stairway, was built in symmetrically on the western side of the Great Wall. The 111 steps were 6.9 meters wide with treads of 31 centimetres and rises of 10 centimetres. Originally, the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain a regal appearance while ascending. The top of the stairways led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace, opposite the Gate of Nations.

Grey limestone was the main building material used in Persepolis. After natural rock had been levelled and the depressions filled in, the terrace was prepared. Major tunnels for sewage were dug underground through the rock. A large elevated water storage tank was carved at the eastern foot of the mountain. Professor Olmstead suggested the cistern was constructed at the same time that construction of the towers began.

The uneven plan of the foundation of the terrace acted like a castle whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front. Diodorus writes that Persepolis had three walls with ramparts, which all had towers to provide protection space for the defense personnel. The first wall was 7 meters tall, the second, 14 meters and the third wall, which covered all four sides, was 27 meters in height, though no presence of the wall exists in modern times.

[edit]Ruins

Bas-relief in Persepolis – a symbol ZoroastrianNowruz – in day of a spring equinox power of eternally fighting bull (personifying the moon), and a lion (personifying the Sun, the bulls crescent horn resembling the moon,the lions mane, representing the sun.

Ruins of a number of colossal buildings exist on the terrace. All are constructed of dark-grey marble. Fifteen of their pillars stand intact. Three more pillars have been re-erected since 1970. Several of the buildings were never finished. F. Stolze has shown that some of the mason’s rubbish remains. These ruins, for which the name Chehel minar (“the forty columns or minarets”) can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takht-e Jamshid – تخت جمشید (“the throne of Jamshid“). Since the time of Pietro della Valle, it has been beyond dispute that they represent the Persepolis captured and partly destroyed by Alexander the Great (Persian: Sekendar / Arabic: Al-Eskender).

Behind Takht-e Jamshid are three sepulchres hewn out of the rock in the hillside. The façades, one of which is incomplete, are richly decorated with reliefs. About 13 km NNE, on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley. The modern Persians call this place Naqsh-e Rustam – نقش رستم or Nakshi Rostam (“the picture of Rostam“), from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rostam. It may be inferred from the sculptures that the occupants of these seven tombs were kings. An inscription on one of the tombs declares it to be that of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by the use of ropes. Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persian kings, either that their remains were brought “to the Persians,” or that they died there.

[edit]The Gate of All Nations

Gate of All Nations.

Two Persian Soldiers in Persepolis (R)

The Gate of all Nations, referring to subjects of the empire, consisted of a grand hall that was a square of approximately 25 meters (82 feet) in length, with four columns and its entrance on the Western Wall. There were two more doors, one to the south which opened to the Apadana yard and the other opened onto a long road to the east. Pivoting devices found on the inner corners of all the doors indicate that they were two-leafed doors, probably made of wood and covered with sheets of ornate metal.

A pair of Lamassus, bulls with the heads of bearded men, stand by the western threshold. Another pair, with wings and a Persian head (Gopät-Shäh), stands by the eastern entrance, to reflect the Empire’s power.

Xerxes’s name was written in three languages and carved on the entrances, informing everyone that he ordered it to be built.

[edit]Apadana Palace

Detail of a relief of the eastern stairs of the Apadana

The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – showing a Persian followed by a Mede soldier in traditional custume

Median man in Persepolis relief

Darius the Great built the greatest palace at Persepolis in the western side. This palace was called the Apadana (the root name for modern “ayvan”).[citation needed] The King of Kings used it for official audiences. The work began in 515 BC. His son Xerxes I completed it 30 years later. The palace had a grand hall in the shape of a square, each side 60 m long with seventy-two columns, thirteen of which still stand on the enormous platform. Each column is 19 m high with a square Taurus and plinth. The columns carried the weight of the vast and heavy ceiling. The tops of the columns were made from animal sculptures such as two headed bulls, lions and eagles. The columns were joined to each other with the help of oak and cedar beams, which were brought from Lebanon. The walls were covered with a layer of mud and stucco to a depth of 5 cm, which was used for bonding, and then covered with the greenish stucco which is found throughout the palaces.

At the western, northern and eastern sides of the palace there were three rectangular porticos each of which had twelve columns in two rows of six. At the south of the grand hall a series of rooms were built for storage. Two grand Persepolitan stairways were built, symmetrical to each other and connected to the stone foundations. To protect the roof from erosion, vertical drains were built through the brick walls. In the four corners of Apadana, facing outwards, four towers were built.

The walls were tiled and decorated with pictures of lions, bulls, and flowers. Darius ordered his name and the details of his empire to be written in gold and silver on plates, which were placed in covered stone boxes in the foundations under the Four Corners of the palace. Two Persepolitan style symmetrical stairways were built on the northern and eastern sides of Apadana to compensate for a difference in level. Two other stairways stood in the middle of the building. The external front views of the palace were embossed with carvings of the Immortals, the Kings’ elite guards. The northern stairway was completed during Darius’s reign, but the other stairway was completed much later.

[edit]The Throne Hall

Next to the Apadana, second largest building of the Terrace and the final edifices, is the Throne Hall or the Imperial Army’s hall of honour (also called the “Hundred-Columns Palace). This 70×70 square meter hall was started by Xerxes and completed by his son Artaxerxes I by the end of the fifth century BC. Its eight stone doorways are decorated on the south and north with reliefs of throne scenes and on the east and west with scenes depicting the king in combat with monsters. Two colossal stone bulls flank the northern portico. The head of one of the bulls now resides in the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[10]

In the beginning of Xerxes’s reign, the Throne Hall was used mainly for receptions for military commanders and representatives of all the subject nations of the empire. Later the Throne Hall served as an imperial museum.

[edit]Other palaces and structures

Tachara palace

There were other palaces built. These included the Tachara palace which was built under Darius I, and the Imperial treasury which was started by Darius in 510 BC and finished by Xerxes in 480 BC. The Hadish palace by Xerxes I, occupies the highest level of terrace and stands on the living rock. The Council Hall, the Tryplion Hall, The Palaces of D, G, H, Storerooms, Stables and quarters, Unfinished Gateway and a few Miscellaneous Structures at Persepolis are located near the south-east corner of the Terrace, at the foot of the mountain.

[edit]Tombs of King of Kings

Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers

Lapis lazuli and paste plaque from Persepolis (National Museum of Iran)

It is commonly accepted that Cyrus the Great was buried at Pasargadae. If it is true that the body of Cambyses II was brought home “to the Persians”, his burying-place must be somewhere beside that of his father. Ctesias assumes that it was the custom for a king to prepare his own tomb during his lifetime. Hence the kings buried at Naghsh-e Rustam are probably Darius the Great,Xerxes IArtaxerxes I and Darius IIXerxes II, who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus). The two completed graves behind Takhti Jamshid would then belong to Artaxerxes II andArtaxerxes III. The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses of Persia, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III (Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought “to the Persians.”

Another small group of ruins in the same style is found at the village of Hajjiäbäd, on the Pulwar, a good hour’s walk above Takhti Jamshid. These formed a single building, which was still intact 900 years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then-existing city of Istakhr.

Cyrus the Great was buried in Pasargadae, which is mentioned by Ctesias as his own city. Since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I, it was probably under this king, with whom the sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital of Persia proper. As the residence of the rulers of the empire, however, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient. The country’s true capitals wereSusaBabylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until Alexander the Great took and plundered it.

At that time Alexander burned “the palaces” or “the palace,” universally believed now to be the ruins at Takhti Jamshid. From Stolze’s investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by fire. The locality described by Diodorusafter Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the mountain on the east.

[edit]Ancient texts

Sehdar Palace in Persepolis in Iran, some Persian noblemen are chatting and walking in a friendly way.

Babylonian version of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions known as XPc (Xerxes Persepolis c) from the portico of the so-called Palace of Darius at Persepolis.

The relevant passages from ancient scholars on the subject are set out below:

(Diod. 17.70.1-73.2) 17.70 (1) Persepolis was the capital of the Persian kingdom. Alexander described it to the Macedonians as the most hateful of the cities of Asia, and gave it over to his soldiers to plunder, all but the palaces. (2) +It was the richest city under the sun and the private houses had been furnished with every sort of wealth over the years. The Macedonians raced into it, slaughtering all the men whom they met and plundering the residences; many of the houses belonged to the common people and were abundantly supplied with furniture and wearing apparel of every kind….
72 (1) Alexander held games in honour of his victories. He performed costly sacrifices to the gods and entertained his friends bountifully. While they were feasting and the drinking was far advanced, as they began to be drunken a madness took possession of the minds of the intoxicated guests. (2) At this point one of the women present, Thais by name and Attic by origin, said that for Alexander it would be the finest of all his feats in Asia if he joined them in a triumphal procession, set fire to the palaces, and permitted women’s hands in a minute to extinguish the famed accomplishments of the Persians. (3) This was said to men who were still young and giddy with wine, and so, as would be expected, someone shouted out to form up and to light torches, and urged all to take vengeance for the destruction of the Greek temples. (4) Others took up the cry and said that this was a deed worthy of Alexander alone. When the king had caught fire at their words, all leaped up from their couches and passed the word along to form a victory procession [epinikion komon] in honour of Dionysius.
(5) Promptly many torches were gathered. Female musicians were present at the banquet, so the king led them all out for the komos to the sound of voices and flutes and pipes, Thais the courtesan leading the whole performance. (6) She was the first, after the king, to hurl her blazing torch into the palace. As the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area was consumed, so great was the conflagration. It was most remarkable that the impious act of Xerxes, king of the Persians, against the acropolis at Athens should have been repaid in kind after many years by one woman, a citizen of the land which had suffered it, and in sport.
(Curt. 5.6.1-7.12) 5.6 (1) On the following day the king called together the leaders of his forces and informed them that “no city was more mischievous to the Greeks than the seat of the ancient kings of Persia . . . by its destruction they ought to offer sacrifice to the spirits of their forefathers.”…
7 (1) But Alexander’s great mental endowments, that noble disposition, in which he surpassed all kings, that intrepidity in encountering dangers, his promptness in forming and carrying out plans, his good faith towards those who submitted to him, merciful treatment of his prisoners, temperance even in lawful and usual pleasures, were sullied by an excessive love of wine. (2) At the very time when his enemy and his rival for a throne was preparing to renew the war, when those whom he had conquered were but lately subdued and were hostile to the new rule, he took part in prolonged banquets at which women were present, not indeed those whom it would be a crime to violate, but, to be sure, harlots who were accustomed to live with armed men with more licence than was fitting.
(3) One of these, Thais by name, herself also drunken, declared that the king would win most favour among all the Greeks, if he should order the palace of the Persians to be set on fire; that this was expected by those whose cities the barbarians had destroyed. (4) When a drunken strumpet had given her opinion on a matter of such moment, one or two, themselves also loaded with wine, agreed. The king, too, more greedy for wine than able to carry it, cried: “Why do we not, then, avenge Greece and apply torches to the city?” 5) All had become heated with wine, and so thy arose when drunk to fire the city which they had spared when armed. The king was the first to throw a firebrand upon the palace, then the guests and the servants and courtesans. The palace had been built largely of cedar, which quickly took fire and spread the conflagration widely. (6) When the army, which was encamped not far from the city, saw the fire, thinking it accidental, they rushed to bear aid. (7) But when they came to the vestibule of the palace, they saw the king himself piling on firebrands. Therefore, they left the water which they had brought, and they too began to throw dry wood upon the burning building.
(8) Such was the end of the capital of the entire Orient. . . .
(10) The Macedonians were ashamed that so renowned a city had been destroyed by their king in a drunken revel; therefore the act was taken as earnest, and they forced themselves to believe that it was right that it should be wiped out in exactly that manner.
(Cleitarchus, FGrHist. 137, F. 11 (= Athenaeus 13. 576d-e))
And did not Alexander the Great have with him Thais, the Athenian hetaira? Cleitarchus speaks of her as having been the cause for the burning of the palace at Persepolis. After Alexander’s death, this same Thais was married to Ptolemy, the first king of Egypt.

There is, however, one formidable difficulty. Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances. This is not true of the graves behind Takhte Jamshid, to which, as F. Stolze expressly observes, one can easily ride up. On the other hand, it is strictly true of the graves at Nakshi Rustam. Stolze accordingly started the theory that the royal castle of Persepolis stood close by Nakshi Rustam, and has sunk in course of time to shapeless heaps of earth, under which the remains may be concealed. The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes. Moreover, Persian tradition at a very remote period knew of only three architectural wonders in that region, which it attributed to the fabulous queen Humgi (Khumái)the grave of Cyrus at Pasargadae, the building at HäjjIãbãd, and those on the great terrace.

It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander. Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchres were at the same place.

[edit]Destruction

After invading Persia, Alexander the Great sent the main force of his army to Persepolis in the year 330 BC by the Royal Road. Alexander stormed the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains), then quickly captured Persepolis before its treasury could be looted. After several months Alexander allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. A fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. It is not clear if it was an accident or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Hellenic-Persian War. Many historians argue that while Alexander’s army celebrated with a symposium they decided to take revenge against Persians. In that case it would be a combination of the two. The Book of Arda Wiraz, a Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century CE, also describes archives containing “all the Avesta and Zand, written upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink” that were destroyed. Indeed in his The chronology of ancient nations, the native Iranian writer Biruni indicates unavailability of certain native Iranian historiographical sources in post-Achaemenid era especially during Ashkanian and adds “..And more than that. He (Alexander) burned the greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful architectural monuments in the mountains of Istakhr, nowadays known as the mosque of Solomon ben David, and delivered them up to the flames. People say that even at the present time the traces of fire are visible in some places.”[11][12]

[edit]After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire

Question book-new.svg This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability.

Persepolis in 1827

Graffiti from visitors.

In 316 BC Persepolis was still the capital of Persia as a province of the great Macedonian Empire (see Diod. xix, 21 seq., 46 ; probably after Hieronymus of Cardia, who was living about 316). The city must have gradually declined in the course of time – the lower city at the foot of imperial city might have survived for a longer time[13]; but the ruins of theAchaemenidae remained as a witness to its ancient glory. It is probable that the principal town of the country, or at least of the district, was always in this neighborhood.

About 200 BC the city Istakhr (properly Estakhr), five kilometers north of Persepolis, is the seat of the local governors. There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and there Istakhr acquired special importance as the center of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighborhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions. They must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors. The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had known about Persepolis—and this despite the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire.

At the time of the Arabian conquest, Istakhr offered a desperate resistance. The city was still a place of considerable importance in the first century of Islam, although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz. In the 10th century, Istakhr dwindled to insignificance, as may be seen from the descriptions of Istakhri, a native (c. 950), and of Mukaddasi (c. 985). During the following centuries, Istakhr gradually declined, until, as a city, it ceased to exist.

In 1618, García de Silva Figueroa, King Philip III of Spain‘s ambassador to the court of Shah Abbas, the Safavid monarch, was the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid as the location of Persepolis.

The Dutch traveller Cornelis de Bruijn visited Persepolis in 1704. He was the first westerner who made drawings of Persepolis.

The fruitful region was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated. The “castle of Istakhr” played a conspicuous part several times during the Muslim period as a strong fortress. It was the middlemost and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or north-west ofNakshi Rustam.

Asian writers[who?] state that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen. Amongst others, James Morier and E. Flandin have visited them. W. Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison. But when Pietro della Valle was there in 1621, it was already in ruins.

[edit]Modern events

In 1971, Persepolis was the main staging ground for the 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy.

[edit]Sivand Dam controversy

Construction of the Sivand Dam, named for the nearby town of Sivand, began September 19, 2006. Despite 10 years of planning, Iran’s ownIranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broad areas of flooding during much of this time[citation needed] and there is growing concern about the effects the dam will have on Persepolis’s surrounding areas.

Many archaeologists[who?] and Iranians worry that the dam’s placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites. Scientists involved with the construction refute this claim, stating its impossibility because both sites sit well above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the more threatened.

Archaeologists are also concerned that an increase in humidity caused by the lake will speed Pasargadae’s gradual destruction, however, experts from the Ministry of Energy believe this would be negated by controlling the water level of the dam reservoir.

[edit]Museums (outside of Iran) that display material from Persepolis

Head of a bull that once guarded the entrance to the Hundred-Column Hall in Persepolis, now at the Oriental Institute, Chicago.

The British Museum has an outstanding collection. The Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, England has a number of bas reliefs from Persepolis.[14] The Persepolis bull at the Oriental Institute, Chicagois one of the university’s most prized treasures, but it is only one of several objects from Persepolis on display at the University of Chicago. The Metropolitan Museum houses objects from Persepolis,[15] as does the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

[edit]Panoramic view

Panoramic view from Persepolis.

 

From wikipedia

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