first shahpoor

one of the iranian kings was called shahpoor and he  governed on iran at time of sasanian kingdom.

two of persian kings were called shahpoor,one of two kings was called first shahpoor and the other was called second shahpoor.

i want introduce first shahpoor in here.

he was son of ardeshir and he was second king of Sassanian kingdom.

during his kingdom occurred a hard war betwin persia and Roman Apratvry.

at that time persian king was first shahpoor and roman king was Valryanvs.in this war persian soldiers Defeated the roman kingdom and their king Was captured by the iranian.

shahpoor Ordered to drag bas relief  On a mountain in the local that called naghsh-rostam today.

naghsh-rostam ia near of pasargad (temp of cyrus).

you see in the below pic Shahpur’s victory against Valerian.

shahpoor is getting on the horse and  Valerian is kneeling in front of him.

پرونده:Bas relief nagsh-e-rostam al.jpg

Crimes of israeil

Multi-country leaders are Speaking of the Iranian threat to world But are silent in the face of Israeli crimes.

you see in the photo below Crimes of israeil.

With a sad heart is not joy in the world

There is a ruined village is Not prosperity.

takhte jamshid or perspolise

Persepolis *
Persepolis recreated.jpg
Country Iran
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Reference 114
Region ** Asia and Australasia
Inscription history
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)
Persepolis is located in Iran

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Location of Persepolis in Iran
Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

Persepolis (Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 PārsaTakht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BCE). Persepolis is situated70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid (Throne of Jamshid). The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BCE. To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa, which means “The City of Persians”. Persepolis is a transliteration of the Greek Πέρσης πόλις (Persēs polis: “Persian city”).

UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.[1]

Contents

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[edit]Construction

Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. André Godard, the French archaeologist who excavated Persepolis in the early 1930s, believed that it was Cyrus the Great (Kūrosh) who chose the site of Persepolis, but that it was Darius the Great (Daryush) who built the terrace and the great palaces.

Darius ordered the construction of the Apadana Palace and the Council Hall (the Tripylon or three-gated hall), the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, King Xerxes the Great (Khashayar). Further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the Achaemenid dynasty.[2]

[edit]Archaeological research

Plan of Persepolis

Odoric of Pordenone passed through Persepolis c.1320 on his way to China. In 1474, Giosafat Barbaro visited the ruins of Persepolis, which he incorrectly thought were of Jewish origin.[3] Antonio de Gouveia from Portugal wrote about cuneiforminscriptions following his visit in 1602. His first written report on Persia, the Jornada, was published in 1606.

Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, a variety of amateur digging occurred at the site, in some cases on a large scale.[4] The first scientific excavations at Persepolis were carried out by Ernst Herzfeld and Erich Schmidt representing the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. They conducted excavations for eight seasons beginning in 1930 and included other nearby sites.[5][6][7][8][9]

Herzfeld believed the reasons behind the construction of Persepolis were the need for a majestic atmosphere, a symbol for their empire, and to celebrate special events, especially the “Nowruz“. For historical reasons, Persepolis was built where the Achaemenid Dynasty was founded, although it was not the center of the empire at that time.

Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Architects resorted to stone only when the largest cedars of Lebanon orteak trees of India did not fulfil the required sizes. Column bases and capitals were made of stone, even on wooden shafts, but the existence of wooden capitals is probable.

The buildings at Persepolis include three general groupings: military quarters, the treasury, and the reception halls and occasional houses for the King. Noted structures include the Great Stairway, the Gate of Nations (Xerxes the Great), the Apadana Palace of Darius, the Hall of a Hundred Columns, the Tripylon Hall and Tachara Palace of Darius, the Hadish Palace of Xerxes, the palace of Artaxerxes III, the Imperial Treasury, the Royal Stables and the Chariot House.

[edit]Site

Persepolis (R)

A 19th century reconstruction of Persepolis, by Flandin and Coste.

Sonnenuntergang in Perspolis.jpg

Persepolis is near the small river Pulwar, which flows into the river Kur (Cyrus / Kuroush). The site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Kuh-e Rahmet (“the Mountain of Mercy”). The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground. From 5 to 13 meters on the west side a double stair, gently slopes to the top. To create the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, which were joined together with metal clips.

Around 518 BC, construction of a broad stairway was begun. The stairway was planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20 meters above the ground. The dual stairway, known as the Persepolitan stairway, was built in symmetrically on the western side of the Great Wall. The 111 steps were 6.9 meters wide with treads of 31 centimetres and rises of 10 centimetres. Originally, the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain a regal appearance while ascending. The top of the stairways led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace, opposite the Gate of Nations.

Grey limestone was the main building material used in Persepolis. After natural rock had been levelled and the depressions filled in, the terrace was prepared. Major tunnels for sewage were dug underground through the rock. A large elevated water storage tank was carved at the eastern foot of the mountain. Professor Olmstead suggested the cistern was constructed at the same time that construction of the towers began.

The uneven plan of the foundation of the terrace acted like a castle whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front. Diodorus writes that Persepolis had three walls with ramparts, which all had towers to provide protection space for the defense personnel. The first wall was 7 meters tall, the second, 14 meters and the third wall, which covered all four sides, was 27 meters in height, though no presence of the wall exists in modern times.

[edit]Ruins

Bas-relief in Persepolis – a symbol ZoroastrianNowruz – in day of a spring equinox power of eternally fighting bull (personifying the moon), and a lion (personifying the Sun, the bulls crescent horn resembling the moon,the lions mane, representing the sun.

Ruins of a number of colossal buildings exist on the terrace. All are constructed of dark-grey marble. Fifteen of their pillars stand intact. Three more pillars have been re-erected since 1970. Several of the buildings were never finished. F. Stolze has shown that some of the mason’s rubbish remains. These ruins, for which the name Chehel minar (“the forty columns or minarets”) can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takht-e Jamshid – تخت جمشید (“the throne of Jamshid“). Since the time of Pietro della Valle, it has been beyond dispute that they represent the Persepolis captured and partly destroyed by Alexander the Great (Persian: Sekendar / Arabic: Al-Eskender).

Behind Takht-e Jamshid are three sepulchres hewn out of the rock in the hillside. The façades, one of which is incomplete, are richly decorated with reliefs. About 13 km NNE, on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley. The modern Persians call this place Naqsh-e Rustam – نقش رستم or Nakshi Rostam (“the picture of Rostam“), from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rostam. It may be inferred from the sculptures that the occupants of these seven tombs were kings. An inscription on one of the tombs declares it to be that of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by the use of ropes. Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persian kings, either that their remains were brought “to the Persians,” or that they died there.

[edit]The Gate of All Nations

Gate of All Nations.

Two Persian Soldiers in Persepolis (R)

The Gate of all Nations, referring to subjects of the empire, consisted of a grand hall that was a square of approximately 25 meters (82 feet) in length, with four columns and its entrance on the Western Wall. There were two more doors, one to the south which opened to the Apadana yard and the other opened onto a long road to the east. Pivoting devices found on the inner corners of all the doors indicate that they were two-leafed doors, probably made of wood and covered with sheets of ornate metal.

A pair of Lamassus, bulls with the heads of bearded men, stand by the western threshold. Another pair, with wings and a Persian head (Gopät-Shäh), stands by the eastern entrance, to reflect the Empire’s power.

Xerxes’s name was written in three languages and carved on the entrances, informing everyone that he ordered it to be built.

[edit]Apadana Palace

Detail of a relief of the eastern stairs of the Apadana

The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – showing a Persian followed by a Mede soldier in traditional custume

Median man in Persepolis relief

Darius the Great built the greatest palace at Persepolis in the western side. This palace was called the Apadana (the root name for modern “ayvan”).[citation needed] The King of Kings used it for official audiences. The work began in 515 BC. His son Xerxes I completed it 30 years later. The palace had a grand hall in the shape of a square, each side 60 m long with seventy-two columns, thirteen of which still stand on the enormous platform. Each column is 19 m high with a square Taurus and plinth. The columns carried the weight of the vast and heavy ceiling. The tops of the columns were made from animal sculptures such as two headed bulls, lions and eagles. The columns were joined to each other with the help of oak and cedar beams, which were brought from Lebanon. The walls were covered with a layer of mud and stucco to a depth of 5 cm, which was used for bonding, and then covered with the greenish stucco which is found throughout the palaces.

At the western, northern and eastern sides of the palace there were three rectangular porticos each of which had twelve columns in two rows of six. At the south of the grand hall a series of rooms were built for storage. Two grand Persepolitan stairways were built, symmetrical to each other and connected to the stone foundations. To protect the roof from erosion, vertical drains were built through the brick walls. In the four corners of Apadana, facing outwards, four towers were built.

The walls were tiled and decorated with pictures of lions, bulls, and flowers. Darius ordered his name and the details of his empire to be written in gold and silver on plates, which were placed in covered stone boxes in the foundations under the Four Corners of the palace. Two Persepolitan style symmetrical stairways were built on the northern and eastern sides of Apadana to compensate for a difference in level. Two other stairways stood in the middle of the building. The external front views of the palace were embossed with carvings of the Immortals, the Kings’ elite guards. The northern stairway was completed during Darius’s reign, but the other stairway was completed much later.

[edit]The Throne Hall

Next to the Apadana, second largest building of the Terrace and the final edifices, is the Throne Hall or the Imperial Army’s hall of honour (also called the “Hundred-Columns Palace). This 70×70 square meter hall was started by Xerxes and completed by his son Artaxerxes I by the end of the fifth century BC. Its eight stone doorways are decorated on the south and north with reliefs of throne scenes and on the east and west with scenes depicting the king in combat with monsters. Two colossal stone bulls flank the northern portico. The head of one of the bulls now resides in the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[10]

In the beginning of Xerxes’s reign, the Throne Hall was used mainly for receptions for military commanders and representatives of all the subject nations of the empire. Later the Throne Hall served as an imperial museum.

[edit]Other palaces and structures

Tachara palace

There were other palaces built. These included the Tachara palace which was built under Darius I, and the Imperial treasury which was started by Darius in 510 BC and finished by Xerxes in 480 BC. The Hadish palace by Xerxes I, occupies the highest level of terrace and stands on the living rock. The Council Hall, the Tryplion Hall, The Palaces of D, G, H, Storerooms, Stables and quarters, Unfinished Gateway and a few Miscellaneous Structures at Persepolis are located near the south-east corner of the Terrace, at the foot of the mountain.

[edit]Tombs of King of Kings

Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers

Lapis lazuli and paste plaque from Persepolis (National Museum of Iran)

It is commonly accepted that Cyrus the Great was buried at Pasargadae. If it is true that the body of Cambyses II was brought home “to the Persians”, his burying-place must be somewhere beside that of his father. Ctesias assumes that it was the custom for a king to prepare his own tomb during his lifetime. Hence the kings buried at Naghsh-e Rustam are probably Darius the Great,Xerxes IArtaxerxes I and Darius IIXerxes II, who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus). The two completed graves behind Takhti Jamshid would then belong to Artaxerxes II andArtaxerxes III. The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses of Persia, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III (Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought “to the Persians.”

Another small group of ruins in the same style is found at the village of Hajjiäbäd, on the Pulwar, a good hour’s walk above Takhti Jamshid. These formed a single building, which was still intact 900 years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then-existing city of Istakhr.

Cyrus the Great was buried in Pasargadae, which is mentioned by Ctesias as his own city. Since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I, it was probably under this king, with whom the sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital of Persia proper. As the residence of the rulers of the empire, however, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient. The country’s true capitals wereSusaBabylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until Alexander the Great took and plundered it.

At that time Alexander burned “the palaces” or “the palace,” universally believed now to be the ruins at Takhti Jamshid. From Stolze’s investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by fire. The locality described by Diodorusafter Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the mountain on the east.

[edit]Ancient texts

Sehdar Palace in Persepolis in Iran, some Persian noblemen are chatting and walking in a friendly way.

Babylonian version of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions known as XPc (Xerxes Persepolis c) from the portico of the so-called Palace of Darius at Persepolis.

The relevant passages from ancient scholars on the subject are set out below:

(Diod. 17.70.1-73.2) 17.70 (1) Persepolis was the capital of the Persian kingdom. Alexander described it to the Macedonians as the most hateful of the cities of Asia, and gave it over to his soldiers to plunder, all but the palaces. (2) +It was the richest city under the sun and the private houses had been furnished with every sort of wealth over the years. The Macedonians raced into it, slaughtering all the men whom they met and plundering the residences; many of the houses belonged to the common people and were abundantly supplied with furniture and wearing apparel of every kind….
72 (1) Alexander held games in honour of his victories. He performed costly sacrifices to the gods and entertained his friends bountifully. While they were feasting and the drinking was far advanced, as they began to be drunken a madness took possession of the minds of the intoxicated guests. (2) At this point one of the women present, Thais by name and Attic by origin, said that for Alexander it would be the finest of all his feats in Asia if he joined them in a triumphal procession, set fire to the palaces, and permitted women’s hands in a minute to extinguish the famed accomplishments of the Persians. (3) This was said to men who were still young and giddy with wine, and so, as would be expected, someone shouted out to form up and to light torches, and urged all to take vengeance for the destruction of the Greek temples. (4) Others took up the cry and said that this was a deed worthy of Alexander alone. When the king had caught fire at their words, all leaped up from their couches and passed the word along to form a victory procession [epinikion komon] in honour of Dionysius.
(5) Promptly many torches were gathered. Female musicians were present at the banquet, so the king led them all out for the komos to the sound of voices and flutes and pipes, Thais the courtesan leading the whole performance. (6) She was the first, after the king, to hurl her blazing torch into the palace. As the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area was consumed, so great was the conflagration. It was most remarkable that the impious act of Xerxes, king of the Persians, against the acropolis at Athens should have been repaid in kind after many years by one woman, a citizen of the land which had suffered it, and in sport.
(Curt. 5.6.1-7.12) 5.6 (1) On the following day the king called together the leaders of his forces and informed them that “no city was more mischievous to the Greeks than the seat of the ancient kings of Persia . . . by its destruction they ought to offer sacrifice to the spirits of their forefathers.”…
7 (1) But Alexander’s great mental endowments, that noble disposition, in which he surpassed all kings, that intrepidity in encountering dangers, his promptness in forming and carrying out plans, his good faith towards those who submitted to him, merciful treatment of his prisoners, temperance even in lawful and usual pleasures, were sullied by an excessive love of wine. (2) At the very time when his enemy and his rival for a throne was preparing to renew the war, when those whom he had conquered were but lately subdued and were hostile to the new rule, he took part in prolonged banquets at which women were present, not indeed those whom it would be a crime to violate, but, to be sure, harlots who were accustomed to live with armed men with more licence than was fitting.
(3) One of these, Thais by name, herself also drunken, declared that the king would win most favour among all the Greeks, if he should order the palace of the Persians to be set on fire; that this was expected by those whose cities the barbarians had destroyed. (4) When a drunken strumpet had given her opinion on a matter of such moment, one or two, themselves also loaded with wine, agreed. The king, too, more greedy for wine than able to carry it, cried: “Why do we not, then, avenge Greece and apply torches to the city?” 5) All had become heated with wine, and so thy arose when drunk to fire the city which they had spared when armed. The king was the first to throw a firebrand upon the palace, then the guests and the servants and courtesans. The palace had been built largely of cedar, which quickly took fire and spread the conflagration widely. (6) When the army, which was encamped not far from the city, saw the fire, thinking it accidental, they rushed to bear aid. (7) But when they came to the vestibule of the palace, they saw the king himself piling on firebrands. Therefore, they left the water which they had brought, and they too began to throw dry wood upon the burning building.
(8) Such was the end of the capital of the entire Orient. . . .
(10) The Macedonians were ashamed that so renowned a city had been destroyed by their king in a drunken revel; therefore the act was taken as earnest, and they forced themselves to believe that it was right that it should be wiped out in exactly that manner.
(Cleitarchus, FGrHist. 137, F. 11 (= Athenaeus 13. 576d-e))
And did not Alexander the Great have with him Thais, the Athenian hetaira? Cleitarchus speaks of her as having been the cause for the burning of the palace at Persepolis. After Alexander’s death, this same Thais was married to Ptolemy, the first king of Egypt.

There is, however, one formidable difficulty. Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances. This is not true of the graves behind Takhte Jamshid, to which, as F. Stolze expressly observes, one can easily ride up. On the other hand, it is strictly true of the graves at Nakshi Rustam. Stolze accordingly started the theory that the royal castle of Persepolis stood close by Nakshi Rustam, and has sunk in course of time to shapeless heaps of earth, under which the remains may be concealed. The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes. Moreover, Persian tradition at a very remote period knew of only three architectural wonders in that region, which it attributed to the fabulous queen Humgi (Khumái)the grave of Cyrus at Pasargadae, the building at HäjjIãbãd, and those on the great terrace.

It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander. Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchres were at the same place.

[edit]Destruction

After invading Persia, Alexander the Great sent the main force of his army to Persepolis in the year 330 BC by the Royal Road. Alexander stormed the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains), then quickly captured Persepolis before its treasury could be looted. After several months Alexander allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. A fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. It is not clear if it was an accident or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Hellenic-Persian War. Many historians argue that while Alexander’s army celebrated with a symposium they decided to take revenge against Persians. In that case it would be a combination of the two. The Book of Arda Wiraz, a Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century CE, also describes archives containing “all the Avesta and Zand, written upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink” that were destroyed. Indeed in his The chronology of ancient nations, the native Iranian writer Biruni indicates unavailability of certain native Iranian historiographical sources in post-Achaemenid era especially during Ashkanian and adds “..And more than that. He (Alexander) burned the greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful architectural monuments in the mountains of Istakhr, nowadays known as the mosque of Solomon ben David, and delivered them up to the flames. People say that even at the present time the traces of fire are visible in some places.”[11][12]

[edit]After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire

Question book-new.svg This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability.

Persepolis in 1827

Graffiti from visitors.

In 316 BC Persepolis was still the capital of Persia as a province of the great Macedonian Empire (see Diod. xix, 21 seq., 46 ; probably after Hieronymus of Cardia, who was living about 316). The city must have gradually declined in the course of time – the lower city at the foot of imperial city might have survived for a longer time[13]; but the ruins of theAchaemenidae remained as a witness to its ancient glory. It is probable that the principal town of the country, or at least of the district, was always in this neighborhood.

About 200 BC the city Istakhr (properly Estakhr), five kilometers north of Persepolis, is the seat of the local governors. There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and there Istakhr acquired special importance as the center of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighborhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions. They must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors. The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had known about Persepolis—and this despite the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire.

At the time of the Arabian conquest, Istakhr offered a desperate resistance. The city was still a place of considerable importance in the first century of Islam, although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz. In the 10th century, Istakhr dwindled to insignificance, as may be seen from the descriptions of Istakhri, a native (c. 950), and of Mukaddasi (c. 985). During the following centuries, Istakhr gradually declined, until, as a city, it ceased to exist.

In 1618, García de Silva Figueroa, King Philip III of Spain‘s ambassador to the court of Shah Abbas, the Safavid monarch, was the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid as the location of Persepolis.

The Dutch traveller Cornelis de Bruijn visited Persepolis in 1704. He was the first westerner who made drawings of Persepolis.

The fruitful region was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated. The “castle of Istakhr” played a conspicuous part several times during the Muslim period as a strong fortress. It was the middlemost and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or north-west ofNakshi Rustam.

Asian writers[who?] state that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen. Amongst others, James Morier and E. Flandin have visited them. W. Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison. But when Pietro della Valle was there in 1621, it was already in ruins.

[edit]Modern events

In 1971, Persepolis was the main staging ground for the 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy.

[edit]Sivand Dam controversy

Construction of the Sivand Dam, named for the nearby town of Sivand, began September 19, 2006. Despite 10 years of planning, Iran’s ownIranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broad areas of flooding during much of this time[citation needed] and there is growing concern about the effects the dam will have on Persepolis’s surrounding areas.

Many archaeologists[who?] and Iranians worry that the dam’s placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites. Scientists involved with the construction refute this claim, stating its impossibility because both sites sit well above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the more threatened.

Archaeologists are also concerned that an increase in humidity caused by the lake will speed Pasargadae’s gradual destruction, however, experts from the Ministry of Energy believe this would be negated by controlling the water level of the dam reservoir.

[edit]Museums (outside of Iran) that display material from Persepolis

Head of a bull that once guarded the entrance to the Hundred-Column Hall in Persepolis, now at the Oriental Institute, Chicago.

The British Museum has an outstanding collection. The Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, England has a number of bas reliefs from Persepolis.[14] The Persepolis bull at the Oriental Institute, Chicagois one of the university’s most prized treasures, but it is only one of several objects from Persepolis on display at the University of Chicago. The Metropolitan Museum houses objects from Persepolis,[15] as does the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

[edit]Panoramic view

Panoramic view from Persepolis.

 

From wikipedia

The nature of iran

iran is a country in the middle east that has four regional climate such as nature of forest that seen in the iran north, in the provinces of gilan,mazandaran,golestan and north of khorasan.this is the nature of caspian sea margin.

like the pics below

Desert areas of Iran that Seen in Central and East and South East such as provinces yazd,semnan,ghom,south khorasan,sistan va baloochestan,kerman.

the pics below

Mountainous regions of Iran in the west of iran Includes the provinces of kordestan,elam,kermanshah,azarbaijan,lorestan.

pics below

 

 

 

 

Hot and humid regions of southern that seen  along the Persian Gulf that includes provinces hormozgan,khoozestan,booshehr and south of sistan va bloochestan.

pics below

as well as iran has several beaches along of persian gulf and caspian sea such as port of anzali,port of abbas,port of hkoramshahr,…

Defining Iran and Iranians

The country called Iran is only a part of the historical domain of Iranian cultural.  In this text and the ones that follow, the use of the term Iran might not necessarily imply what we know today as Iran, bounded by modern borders.  Historically, people of modern Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, western Pakistan, Caucasus, Iraq, and southern coast of the Persian Gulf have at one point or another been part of the greater Iranian cultural domain.  This culture has not been necessarily centred in Iran, and thus does not; in anyway, suggest a chauvinistic or nationalistic view.  It is indeed true that many times during the history of Iran and its people, the centres of Iranian culture, and even political power, have lied outside its current borders. Therefore  from Iran and Iranian, we don’t always mean the Persian, Kurdish, or Baluchi speaking population of modern Iran, but also the historical population of all other places when Iranian culture has made an impact. 

Linguistically, Iran means the land of the Aryans, the eastern branch of Indo-Europeans.  A group of  Aryans (or Indo-Iranians) who migrated to the Iranian plateau around 2000 BCE from Central Asia, are thought to be the direct ancestors of modern Iranians This has encouraged many historians to start the history of Iran from the Aryan migrations or the establishment of the first Aryan political power, the Achaemenid Empire. At the same time, it is true that long before the influx of Aryans into Iran, different peoples with established civilisations and kingdoms inhabited the country.  These dynasties that deteriorated before the arrival of the Aryans or were defeated by them, had an extensive system of international trade and relations with other civilisations of their time, as far west as Egypt and maybe Southern Europe and to China in the east.  The history of these people, even if solely for their impact on the invading Aryans, certainly deserves a mention and hopefully deeper investigation.  Here, we will briefly mention these civilisation and their international relations, and hopefully investigate their demise under the Aryan rule.  But first, a quick description of the Iranian geography seems appropriate. 

Geography of the Iranian Plateau

In geological terms, the Iranian plateau is late formation.  As late as the Mesozoic era, most of the land was covered by a large sea called the Sea of Tetis.  This sea eventually was drained and its remainders became the Caspian and the Black Sea.  The lasting effect of the Tetis has been the persistence of salt deserts in Iran and the existence of at least one highly condensed salt lake, Urmiyah. Caspian, the largest lake in the world, also has one of the highest amounts of salt in cubic meter in the world.  

The Iranian plateau today is a land surrounded by high mountains and spotted by warm lowlands.  Two important mountain ranges, each with peaks over 5,000 meters high, stretch from the northwestern corner of the plateau, the current Azerbaijan province, to the south and east.  The eastern branch, Alborz, boasts the highest peak of the two ranges, Mt. Damavand. The Alborz range creates a high barrier south of the Caspian Sea, making serious impacts on the climate of the plateau.  While lush forests and pastures abound south of the Caspian and give it a mild, humid weather, the Alborz prevents the passing of the rain-rich clouds to the inside of the plateau, causing very low rainfall, and thus creating a dry and mostly warm climate south of the mountains. 

The second mountain range, Zagros, stretches from northwest to the south and diverts to the east just north of the Persian Gulf.  It does not cause as much complications as the Alborz, since the height of the Zagros peaks decrease around the Persian Gulf, allowing more clouds to move over the mountains.  In areas were Zagros forms two branches, just south of Azerbaijan; an inhabitable area has been created that shows some of the oldest signs of settlement on the plateau. 

Inside the country, there are two major deserts; one, Dasht-e Kavir, around 200 km east of modern Tehran and at the feet of the Alborz range, is covered with sand and is mainly uninhabited.  The smaller desert, Lut, is not as dry and provides enough resources for the survival of small communities.  These two deserts, both pushing towards the east, have caused the shift of population to the west, north, and south of the plateau.   

In addition to the southern Caspian region, two more regions, one north of the Persian Gulf and east of the point of the meeting of Tigris and Euphrates, and the other at the point of meeting of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Omman, are agriculturally very prosperous.  These three areas, Caspian Coast, Khuz, andPersia respectively, have thus provided some of the oldest centres of inhabitation in the Iranian plateau.  

The rivers of Iran are few and mainly seasonal.  From the major rivers, only Karun in the south, Aras in the northwest, and Sepid-rud in the north flow year round, and only Karun is deep enough for modern navigation.  This obvious lack of water supply should have made Iran an unattractive place for settlement. On the contrary, some of the world’s oldest civilisations have formed in or around the plateau.  Natural defense and rich resources could be an explanation, as could be the fact that in the pre-historic and early historic times, forests and rivers most likely covered more of the plateau than they do today.

Early Human Life in Iran

Although geologically new, the area of Iran has been inhabited from the very early times.  Archaeological excavations have uncovered skeletons of early homo erectus man in Iran and it seems that from the earliest stages of human development, Iran, as a land bridge, has been constantly inhabited. 

In terms of civilisations, the evidence carry us to the earliest stages of human settlement.  Hunter-gatherers from the high mountains have settled around the plateau as early as 30,000 BC.  The origins of most of the earliest human settlements in the plateau are not known and they seem to be local, developing from hunter-gatherer stage to the settled farmers settling in the mountains or plains of southern Caspian coast and northern Persian Gulf.  Between 8,000 to 6,000 BCE, the earliest signs of settlement and domestication of animals appears in west and south-western Iran, followed by appearance of painted pottery.  

When the Sumerian kingdom was established in the southern most section of Mesopotamia, many tribes had already been settled and were in early stages of state building.  The apparent trade between the Dravidian civilisation of the Indus Valley and Sumer passed through the territories of these small states.  From the apparent peace and quite that persisted on the area and the flow of trade, we can assume that some kind of agreement was reached for the protection of merchant caravans.  The future rise of kingdoms in the area also points to the profit that was gained by them from the passing trade.  

 

Civilisations in Iran 

    I. Early Settlements

The earliest of evidence of a civilisation in Iran come from the southern Caspian region, in present day province of Gilan.  Around the village of Marlik, evidence of metal work and pottery have been found that date back to the 5th century BCE.  This area seems to have been inhabited by the same people who were settled in eastern Anatolia, proto-Hattians, and Hurrians of later Urartu kingdom.  The similarity of art works seem to also suggest close connections with the Kassites of Luristan who later became one of the two dominant civilisations of pre-Aryan era.  

The other pre-historic civilisation that is attested in Iran is the civilisation of the people who lived in the city of Sialk, near modern Kashan in central Iran.  This walled city attests the oldest fortified settlement in Iran.  The danger that these walls were trying to keep out is not known, but it might have come from migrating Kassites who moved from the north and northwest towards the southwestern Iran and the mountains of Luristan.  Sialk pottery is close to the Marlik and Kassite pottery, while the signs of metal works are limited.  The houses are built from stones, the ready material of the region, and the position of the city suggests a port situation, probably of a larger lake whose remainings still exist as the Daryache Namak (the salt lake) near the modern city of Qom.  

    II. Kassites

The origin of the Kassites is not known, but their material life suggests close connections to the civilisations of Hurrians and Hattis and even to the Luvian and other pre-Greek cultures of Anatolia and Minoans of Crete.  The bronze work of the Kassites is very famous and is used to establish links between the Sumerians, Monoans, Etruscans, and Dravidian civilisation of the Indus Valley/Muhenjudaro.  Linguistic research relates the Kassite  to the Indo-Iranians, but these are mainly extracted from the names of the deities, mentioned later in the Kassite history.  As with the case of the Mitanni, these gods might belong to a ruling class that could have had Indo-Iranian roots, but in general, there is no strong evidence to suggest Indo-European roots of the Kassite.  Other local inhabitants of Luristan and the rest of the southwest Iran, Lullubis and Gutians, also do not show any Indo-Iranian characteristics.  

Kassites first entered written history in the Babylonian records when they attacked Babylon in a campaign from 2080-2043 BCE under the rule of their first king, Gandash.  The Babylonian king, Shemshu-Ilune, the son of Hamurabi the great law-giver, defeated the unorganised Kassite tribes and drove them back to their mountain strongholds.  Centuries later, in 1595 BCE, a united Kassite and Gutian force, under the command of Agum-Kak-Reme,  attacked Babylon following the Hittite withdrawl, this time successfully, and ruled for about three hundred years, until 1180 BCE. The Kassite dominance of Babylon resulted in the introduction of horse to the Babylonian army, probably the result of earlier Kassite contacts with the Central Asian nomads.  

The Kassites also extended their dominance to the Elamite kingdom of southwest Iran and put an end to the Old Elamite kingdom.  They extended their lands to the borders of Egypt on one side, and as far north as the Urartu territory in Caucasus and Anatolia.  Their last king, Anllil-nadin-akhe, was defeated by the Elamite king and was taken prisoner to Susa where he died in 1180, putting an end to the Kassite power in Mesopotamia.  The remaining of the Kassite tribes who had managed to keep their own identity, retreated back to the high mountains of Luristan, where they eventually became part of the strong kingdoms of Elam and eventually the Persian Empire.  

 

    III. Elam

Elam, the most powerful and longest lasting civilisation of the Iranian plateau prior to the Aryan arrival, has a complex history.  Most of the history of Elam has been recorded by their fierce enemies Babylonians and Assyrians, or by their successors, the Persians, who had a strong incentive to undermine the late Elamite kingdom.  As a result, Elamite representation has not been very fair or accurate, and only due to the recent scholarship and reading of Elamite inscriptions we can have a good idea of their culture.  

As with the Kassites, we do not have a reliable knowledge of Elamite origin.  As far back as 4th millennium BCE, evidence of Elamite settlement in the plains of Khuz (northern Persian Gulf) exist.  Researches done on the Elamite skeletons show their racial closeness to the Sumerians and Dravidians of Indus Valley, while their language, at least in its latest form, shows very little connections with these cultures.  The Elamite pottery and crafts is strongly influenced by the Sumerian artifacts, as well as Muhenjudaro and Bactro-Margiana cultural artifacts.  We might assume that Elamites arrived in their homeland, most likely via the sea from southern Indus Valley region, around 3,500 BCE.  Prior to their arrival, the plains of northern Persian Gulf were among the oldest civilised areas in the world history and the site of Susa was inhabited as far back as 4,200 BCE and had come under the rule of the kings of Akkad.  When the ancestors of Elamites arrived, they settled in that area under the rule of the Sumerian kingdom of Ur.  The proto-Elamites adopted many of the Sumerian cultural characteristics such as the cuneiform writing, which replaced their own original pictographic writing system.  Still, they kept their own unique cultural peculiarities such as maternal system of succession and their own religion.  Women seem to have held a very important position in the Elamite society.  They inherited and willed their property, they ruled and conducted business, and as mentioned before, they were agents of succession in the government.  The maternal characteristics of Elamite culture survived up to the Neo-Elamite era (around 750 BCE), around which it started to give way to the Babylonian/Semitic paternalistic system of its neighbours.  

 

An aerial photo of the Ziggurat of Chogha-Zanbil, built during the reign of Untash Napirisha (ca. 1250 BC) to the south of Ancient Susan (courtesy of Iran Photo Album)

The Elamite history has been superficially divided into Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, based on the Egyptian system adopted by early Orientalists.  This division does not hold firmly for Elam, but it is generally used as a matter of convenience.  The Old Elamite Kingdom started a period of growth around the early 2nd millennium BCE.  They first established their roots in the Khuz area, in the site of Susa(Shusha in Elamite), where Puzur-Inshushinak (r. ca. 2112–2095 BCE) built the first Elamite status in his own honour. Elamites initially attacked and destoryed Ur, and later invaded Babylonia around 2,000 BCE and founded the Larsa dynasty.  By that time, they were already the masters of UrukIsin, andBabylon.  Later, Hamurabi of Babylonia stopped the expansion of Elam, but Babylonians could not stop the great kings like Kutir-Nakhunte to revive the Elamite power a hundred years later (ca. 1700 BCE).   

Around 1,600 BCE, Kassites attacked and invaded Elam and annexed it to their empire.  This put an end to the Old Elamite kingdom which was ruled successively by Kassites, Babylonians, Hittites, and again by Kassites for another 400 years.  In 1160 BCE, Shutruk-Nakhunte, a local ruler of Susa, drove the Kassites out of Elam and established a new dynasty and an Elamite Empire.  The culture that allowed the foundation of the Elamite Empire created great cities of Awan, Anshan, Simash and especially Susa, the lowland capital of the Elamites.  It also built the great Ziggurat of Chogha-Zanbil, the famous temple of Elam that now remains as the oldest standing archaeological building in Iran.

 

 

A picture of Shush (Susa) the Lowland capital of Elam

The Elamite Empire was very short lived and it was soon invaded by Nebuchadnazzer of Baylonia in 1120 BCE.  For 300 years, Elam, and Susa as its centre, was ruled as a Babylonian protectorate.  During this time, the centre of the Elamite power was shifted to the east of their traditional territory and took refuge in the city of Anshan in the Zagros mountains.  Elam once again rose to power in 750 BCE and took over their old capital of Susa.  This New Elamite kingdom soon became a powerful state and started a campaign against the Babylonians and the new Assyrian Empire.  This state, however powerful, could not stand against the overwhelming Assyrian expansion.  In 645, Ashur-Banipal, the last powerful Assyrian emperor, invaded and raised Susa to the ground.  This was the last blow on the Elamite power which at this point divided into small states and was soon ran over by the rising Median and Persian powers.  

Despite its troublesome history, Elam holds a great place in the history of civilisation, especially from the Iranian point of view.  Elamites have been accused of cultural stagnation and lack of innovation.  While it is true that many of their cultural characteristics, especially writing system, was adopted from the Mesopotamian civilisations, it is undeniable that the Elamites possessed a distinctly Elamite culture. They kept their own religion and built great temples to their gods, including Inshushinak, the protector of Susa, and a goddess who probably became Ardauui Sura Anahita of the Achaemenid religion.  Their government system, especially in its succession procedure, was unique for its time.  Contrary to the agricultural economy of Mesopotamian, the Elamite economy was based greatly on trade, but also on mining and export of raw material such as tin that was crucial for the powerful empires of Babylon and Assyria.  They also for a long while acted as a buffer zone between Mesopotamia and the internal nomads of Iran, in the process, forming a great hybrid culture of Elamite, Babylonian, and Sumerian characteristics.  

 

Aerial photograph of Tal-e Malyan, now recognised as the site of the ancient Elamite highland capital of Anshan(courtesy of Archaeological Excavations at Tal-e Malyan)

 

As far as the later civilisations of Iran are concerned, Elam was the major transmitter of the achievements of older civilisations to the Median and Achaemenid empires.  The modified cuneiform that was developed by Elamites from the Sumerian models, constituted an early form of Syllabry that made it possible to create the Old Persian alphabetic cuneiform.  Elamite architecture was the model of Achaemenid palaces, and the court procedure of the Persian court was completely modeled after the Elamite costumes.  Also, the sciences and knowledge of Elam and Mesopotamia, mathematics and astronomy, was transmitted to the Persian Empire by the Elamite scribes who made their language one of the three official languages of the empire.  Maybe the greatest tribute paid to Elam was the selection of their old capital, Susa, as the main capital of the Achaemenids.  Cultural legacy of Elam has affected their successors more than many might imagine.  

    IV: Other Civilisations

To the north of the Kassites, there lived a group of people called Hurrians who were probably the native inhabitants of the southern Caucasus.  They spoke a language unrelated to all other languages around them, and they seem to have spread quickly around the landscape in the second millennium BCE.  Their area of influence stretched westwards to the Van Lake area and made them neighbours of the Hatti and later the Hittite Kingdom.  Around the 1400 BCE, a group of Hurrian people formed a kingdom called the Mitanni in the areas of modern Kurdistan and eastern Turkey.  The Mitannis adopted the Assyrian cuneiform and have thus left us with a few written documents of their civilisation.  From these documents and also from an important inscription detailing a Mitanni peace treaty with the Hittites, we know that at least the ruling class of the Mitanni kingdom were from an Indo-European and specifically Indo-Aryan background.  A manual for training of horses uses many Indo-European names for horse accessories, and in the aforementioned peace treaty, we have the name of many Indo-Aryan deities included in the pantheon of Mitanni gods.  This has for long puzzled the historians, since the distance between the Mitanni and the rest of the Indo-Aryans who at the time lived in Central Asia and Afghanistan is great.  Conventional scholarship suggests a migration of Indo-Iranians from the plains of Central Asia to northeastern Iran and then south to the Indus Valley.  If this view is accepted, the existence of a semi-isolated Indo-Aryan ruling class in western Iran seems highly confusing.  A possible suggested answer is the migration of a branch of Indo-Iranians from the northern plains of the Caspian Sea down the Caucasus and into western Iran.  This and other suggestions seem to be kept at the level of theory in the absence of empirical evidence in their support.

Urartu, another Hurrian nation, also formed a civilisation of the Iranian plateau.  Their kingdom was very successful in its relations with the dominant powers of the time, Assyrians and the Hittite.  Urartu formed a trade confederation that benefited from the Assyrian and Hittite desire to access the tin and gold mines of Iranian mountains.  With the wealth coming from their trade, the Urartu built lasting tributes to their civilisation whose remains still stand around northeastern Iran and eastern Anatolia.  The later Armenian kingdoms claimed descent from the Urartans, and the name of the great mountain of Armenia, Mount Ararat, comes from the name of the Urartu people.  This civilisation ceased to exist sometimes before the rise of the Median kingdom in the southern borders of their territory (ca. 650 BCE), but it left lasting influences, especially in architecture, on the kigdom of the Medes.

 

tomp of the cyrus

tomp of the cyrus

tomp of the cyrus
he was king of kings
the king of the persian land

Cyrus the Great…

Cyrus the Great
King of Persia, King of Āryāvarta[1][2], King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World[3]
Reign 559 BC – 530 BC (30 years)
Born 600 BC or 576 BC
Birthplace AnshanPersisIran
Died December, 530 BC
Place of death Along the Syr Darya
Buried Pasargadae
Predecessor Cambyses I
Successor Cambyses II
Consort Cassandane of Persia
Offspring Cambyses II
Bardiya
Artystone
Atossa
Unnamed unknown
Royal House Achaemenid
Father Cambyses I
Mother Mandane of Media or Argoste of Persia


about iran(persia)

iran or persia is a country in middle east.

Iran was the most powerful country in times BC.
in fact,Cyrus is the founder of Iran.He was king of iran in 500 BC.
cyrus loved the people of his country and respected them.

He was a champion of human rights and human freedom.
he was the one who  expanded the peace in the world.He was the first king of the Achaemenid dynasty.
Iran is not well understood in the West.

You can see in the picture below Map of Iran during the Achaemenid.

At that time, Persia was the most powerful country in the world.

Iranian territory included countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,

 Armenia, Turkey, Egypt,Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israelو Cemetery,Parts of Greece, Italy, France and…

iran is my love and my life.

Iranian  nation were godly before the Arabs , The Arabs had no civilization and  they were lived in the wild.

i like iran before islamic more than the Iran after the Islamic.

In the next posts I will write more about Iran.